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Ethnicity Guide

Active is: Succeeding as yourself Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace A guide to foster understanding of cultural heritage and inclusion of ethnic minorities Edition 2021 Value. Shared.

Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace Introduction First, thank you for being here. A bold conversation about ethnic minorities in the workplace has needed to happen for a very long time. Pushed by the #blacklivesmatter protests, that conversation is happening around the world now and like any good conversation needs some people to speak, others to listen and some collective efforts to make positive change happen. These conversations are deeply personal and oftentimes emotional. As we engage in them with colleagues, clients and other stakeholders, it is important to frame the dialogue in a way that creates a safe, affirming space for all. This is a global responsibility, a business responsibility, and everyone’s responsibility. Fostering inclusive behaviours and empowering talented colleagues to succeed as they are, is not only the right thing to do, but is integral to how we work, add value for our clients, enhance our brand and grow our business. At AllianzGI we aim at nurturing a healthy workforce and looking at diversity from the perspectives of gender identity, disability, ancestry and ethnicity, sexual orientation, age and social background. And because we are all defined by more than just one of those traits, we make sure to address our I&D challenges with an intersectional lens. This guide is meant to be a document* to inform you and provide you with some perspective that will make you more confident in addressing conversations around inclusion of ethnic minorities in the workplace. No one marginalized group has ever successfully advocated on behalf of themselves alone to enact change. It takes informed and empowered allies to tip the scales, and we thank you for understanding that and seeking a way to better lend your voice. We may not be able to change everything overnight, but wouldn’t it be great if we all made a start? We would like to make this guide a “living” resource, so please let us know any ways that we can make this more helpful. Feedback is always very welcome. Allianz Global Investors Marine Palies Executive Committee Lead Inclusion & Diversity * This guide provides guidance incorporating global leading practice, hence country specific requirements may vary and will need to be taken into consideration before using. 3

Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace Some tips around terminology Terminology around race and ethnicity has evolved over time and varies significantly from country to country as a result of legal and cultural histories. It is common to see the terms “race” Ethnicity is also a social construct, and “ethnicity” used interchangeably, but it more often relates to a group but generally speaking the meanings identification, based on a person’s are distinct. cultural heritage, including their As far as the term “race” is concerned, language, religion, nationality, regional in the biological and social sciences culture, dress and customs (for instance: the consensus is clear: race is a social African American, Chicanx, Celtic, construct, created to classify people Galician, Hmong, Romani, Tamils). on the arbitrary basis of skin colour It is important that we all discuss (black, white for instance) and other our respective cultural heritage and physical features (height, eyes, hair ethnicity in a way that is appropriate, for instance). Today, scientists prefer to inclusive and sensitive to how ethnic use the term “ancestry” to reflect the groups identify themselves. It is fact that human variations do have a important to be familiar with the connection to the geographical origins current terminology to support that. of our ancestors and unlike the term However, if in doubt, be guided by “race,” it focuses on understanding the ‘platinum rule’ – “treat people the how a person’s history unfolded, not way they would like to be treated” how they fit into one category and not and ask. Ask people about their another. Even if most scientists reject heritage and strive for respectful the concept of “race” as a biological accuracy that observes how people concept, race exists, undeniably, as self-identify ethnically. Learning that a social and political concept, and a good conversation starter can be racial identity and its impact on “What’s your cultural heritage?” lived experiences is in some countries as opposed to “Where do you come very real. from?” can make a big difference. 4 5

Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace Ethnic minorities and well-being Underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in the corporate world, especially at senior levels, is bad enough. But even worse, according to extensive research, is the lived experience of ethnic minorities, who continue to face both explicit racism and subtle racism on the job. They can manifest in several often-overlapping forms and, like other types of discrimination, they can lead to a profound feeling of pain, harm and humiliation among members of the target group, often leading to exclusion. Examples of these can include (but not limited to) Bias: Microaggressions: That said, here are some terminology tips you might Avoid using the term ‘Non-White”. find useful: The term ‘non-White’ is generally not well received, as it defines Bias refers to the attitudes or stereotypes Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily Name the specific group/ethnicity you are referring to. ethnic minorities solely by reference to the White majority. that affect our understanding, actions, and verbal, behavioural, or environmental indignities, whether We do not use the term ‘non-Black’ when describing the White decisions in an unconscious manner (or intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, Ethnic Minority is the collective term which is most widely group, so why should we say ‘non-White’ when describing sometimes consciously). These biases, which derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults towards used and accepted globally. In the US the term BIPOC ethnic minorities? Also, do not forget that ethnic minorities encompass both favourable and unfavourable ethnic minorities. The “micro” in the term “microaggressions” is used to refer to Black, Indigenous and People of Color. include White minorities (for instance: Gypsy, Irish travellers). assessments, are often activated involuntarily does not refer to a smaller impact. Rather, it refers to The UK tend to use the term BAME – Black, Asian and and without an individual’s awareness or interactions on the micro-scale, rather than on the systemic/ Minority Ethnic or BME – Black and Minority Ethnic. Some Watch out for “us/them” syntax. intentional control. These associations develop structural, macro scale. countries, such as France and Germany, prefer to avoid We all do it sometimes, but it will harshen your sentiment, even over the course of a lifetime beginning at a Perpetrators of microaggressions are often unaware that the terms race and ethnicity and refer to diversity of origins when speaking to white people. Define your prepositions. very early age through exposure to direct they engage in such communications when they interact or people with immigrant backgrounds. You can say “black,” and not with a whisper. and indirect messages. with ethnic minorities. In most cases, when individuals are However, the acceptability of these acronyms has It’s not a bad word. “It’s not a bad word, so it’s not necessary to Automatic associations, assumptions and confronted with their micro aggressive acts, the perpetrator been called into question as people of ethnic minority lower your voice when you say it. The same approach can be stereotypes about individuals from ethnic usually believes that the victim has overreacted and is backgrounds are not one homogenous group and applied to other appropriate and respectful racial identifiers.” minority groups on occasions can produce being overly sensitive. Often described as “death by a experience social inequalities and stereotyping in blocked opportunities such as being denied thousand cuts,” the emotional, behavioural, and cognitive different ways that require different interventions. Say Latino/Latina/Latinx* rather than Hispanic. a promotion. Stereotypes can place additional impact of microaggressions is cumulative and over time That is why it is a better practice to name the group/ The term “Latino” is preferred as less derivative of pressure on groups to ‘conform’ which can results in harmful psychological and physiological effects ethnicity being referenced. colonial lineage. impact self-confidence. for targeted individuals. 6 7

Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace Examples of racial microaggressions: what you might say and what might be heard. “There is only one race, the human race”, “I don’t see colour.” “From my perspective, ethnic minorities have the same opportunity as anyone else if they work hard enough, Message: and race and ethnicity do not play a role in life successes.” I refuse to acknowledge your reality. Message: “I am unable or unwilling to recognize and admit that just by being born a certain ethnicity, I have benefited from certain privileges or advantages that are not afforded to ethnic minorities.” “I’m not racist. I have several black friends.”, “As a woman, I know what you go through as a racial minority.” Asking to someone who is Assuming that people Message: not like the dominant group: from ethnic minorities are I am denying racial biases, “Why do you have to be so foreign- born by asking I am immune to racism loud/animated? Just calm “Where are you from?” because I have friends of down.” Or: “Why are you so or saying “You speak colour, your racial oppression quiet? We want to know what English well.” is no different than my you think. Be more verbal.” gender oppression, I can’t Message: be a racist, I’m like you. Message: You are a foreigner. Please assimilate to dominant culture, leave your cultural baggage outside. 8 9

Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace Responding to The role microaggressions and bias of privilege Despite an increased awareness of racial microaggressions, observers witnessing someone perpetrating Privilege refers to an unearned microaggressions against another person often do not know what to do, experience a sense of shock or surprise advantage or entitlement based and struggle to determine how to respond quickly and effectively. This occurs because observers are typically upon an individual’s characteristics, unsure about what actually occurred, are concerned about negative repercussions that may occur if they do including (but not limited to) their respond, perceive that it may be better do to nothing, or somehow convince themselves that what observed really ethnicity, race, gender identity, did not happen. Consequently, racial microaggressions often go unchecked and result in racial battle fatigue. sexual orientation, socio-economic status or religious belief. It influences When a microaggression occurs, we all have a moral Challenge the stereotype and/or offer systemic and social norms, resulting duty to respond and here are some tips on how to do that: alternative perspectives. in inequalities that tend to serve and Restate or paraphrase. “Actually, in my experience...” “I think that’s a stereotype. benefits some groups over others. “I think I heard you saying (paraphrase their comments). I’ve learned that...” “Another way to look at it is ...” Having privilege does not mean you Is that correct?” Promote empathy. have not worked hard to get to where Ask how they would feel if someone said something like that you are, or you have not encountered Ask for clarification or more information. your own personal struggles during “Could you say more about what you mean by that?” about their group, or their friend/partner/child. “I know you your life; having privilege is recognising “How have you come to think that?” don’t like the stereotypes about (their group), how do you that your cultural heritage, ethnicity, think he feels when he hears those things about his group?”, gender identity, sexual orientation Separate intent from impact. “How would you feel if someone said that about/did that or other demographic characteristics “I know you didn’t realize this, but when you (comment/ to your sister or girlfriend?” have not been one of the factors behaviour), it was hurtful/offensive because... Instead Tell them they’re too smart or too good to say that has made your life more difficult you could (different language or behaviour.)” things like that. as a result. Share your own process. “Come on. You’re too smart to say something so offensive.” “I noticed that you (comment/behaviour). I used to do/say Pretend you don’t understand. that too, but then I learned….” As people try to explain their comments, they often realize Express your feelings. how silly they sound. “I don’t get it...”, “Why is that funny?” “When you (comment/behaviour), I felt (feeling) Remind them of the rules or policies. and I would like you to...” “That behaviour is against our code of conduct and could really get you in trouble.” 10 11

Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace Here are some examples of white privilege -in – I can do well in a challenging situation without How can we predominantly White cultures- based on daily being called a credit to my ethnicity. experiences that we often take for granted, in – I can be late to a meeting without having the the hope it offers a better understanding of this lateness reflect on my cultural background. complex subject: all do better? – I can turn on the television or open to the front – If I have low credibility as a leader I can be sure page of the paper and see people who look like that the colour of my skin is not the problem. me widely represented. – I can be sure that if I need legal or medical help, By respecting preferences & honouring experiences and do not expect them to accept the burden of – I can take a job without having my co-workers on my race will not work against me. automatically educating you about unfamiliar topics. the job suspect that I got it because of my race. – I can arrange to protect my children most of In conversations about heritage and ethnicity, the most vital principle to acknowledge is that the ultimate authority on a By avoiding assumptions – I can think over many options, social, political, the time from people who might not like them. person’s identity and experiences belongs to that individual. imaginative or professional, without asking whether – I can be pretty sure that if I ask to talk to “the Above all, commit to respecting the other person’s preferences Avoid making assumptions about a particular ethnic a person of my ethnicity would be accepted or person in charge,” I will be facing a person who and honouring their lived experiences. Be prepared to group based on limited or biased samples. While it is allowed to do what I want to do. looks like me. understand and empathize around the challenges that exist excellent to research different cultures and backgrounds, for ethnic minorities, do not discount their perspective. be careful to ensure that your sources of information – I can speak in public to a powerful group without – I will feel welcomed in the usual walks of public are credible. putting my origins on trial. life, institutional and social. By acknowledging bias, privilege and context By rejecting colour blindness Be intentionally aware of your privilege and your biases. To build relationships, it can be powerful to connect over Acknowledge how your appearance, social class, upbringing, similarities. However, do not neglect to celebrate your or affiliations might place you in a privileged position. Also, differences! Refuse to be colour blind. Instead, be colour be mindful of the social and historical context in which you operate. Approach the conversation acknowledging your brave! Take time to appreciate the uniqueness and It should be noted that having privilege based upon one set of characteristics does not cancel out one’s other position as a member of the majority or the minority. Keep individuality of everyone you encounter. marginalised identities. For example, a person can be a woman and still have white privilege. Not having male in mind that there may be a history of certain groups being By getting comfortable with discomfort privilege does not cancel out one’s white privilege. A person can lack economic privilege but still have white privilege. underrepresented or mistreated in your educational or Because concepts of heritage, culture, race, ethnicity and Not having wealth does not cancel out white privilege. geographic context. identity are complex and deeply personal, they often Understanding how our privilege impacts others is an essential step to build empathy and addressing individual By owning our learning bring feelings of discomfort. Many of us enjoy talking and systemic inequalities. As you discuss complex notions about heritage and ethnicity, about the latest movies we saw over the weekend, music, be open to learning something new. Be careful, however, not activities, and events in our communities. Yet, racial issues to rely on the other person to teach you everything about such are avoided at all costs. We should not avoid these their heritage and/or culture. Engage people on their terms, conversations because they make us uncomfortable. 12 13

Talking about ethnic diversity in the workplace How can we all act at work? Start with your personal analysis and ask yourself Actively support and sponsor Employee/ Business how good you’re at engaging with people from Resource Groups and their initiatives. different ethnic backgrounds Diversify and expand your networks; seek out untapped Educate yourself on issues relating to ethnic minorities, talents and provide opportunities. ask your team members and/or colleagues to do so. Ask for diverse slates of candidates for hiring and promotion. Dare to engage in bold conversations on the topic Actively invite a range of perspectives and voices on of ethnic minorities. all your teams. Set ground rules for these conversations, e.g. get Notice what people are experiencing and ask how comfortable being uncomfortable, don’t interrupt, their experience differs from yours. ensure confidentiality. Influence others by making the conversation about Call out racist behaviour, discrimination, challenge ethnic minorities a continuous dialogue. conscious and unconscious ethnic bias. Identify talents within the organisation and support Fight against any other forms of disrespectful them to address the barriers they face at work. behaviours, even when they affect “majority groups” Create mentoring and/or reverse mentoring relationships Be a role model by being accountable for fostering to help build new skills and perspectives. ethnic minorities’ representation at all levels of the organization. Sponsor talents from ethnic minorities, become Consider volunteering in the community to support their advocate, give them visibility, stretch assignments local underprivileged populations. and projects to accelerate their careers. 14

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